Calcium phosphate materials with submicron surface topography: a valuable option to support bone healing

InterLynk partner, Kuros Biosciences, has been at the forefront of research into the benefits of sub-micron-featured calcium phosphate to support bone healing. Earlier research has demonstrated that calcium phosphate materials with submicron (smaller than a micron) surface features can promote bone healing in soft tissue without the need for cells and growth factors. Their recent study published in February 2023 in the Journal of Immunology and Regenerative Medicine found that these materials elicit a specific innate immune response, involving the upregulation of pro-healing, anti-inflammatory ‘M2’ macrophages. These are specialized immune cells that play an important role in the regulation of tissue regeneration. In an in vitro study, human ‘M2’ macrophages showed stronger activation on submicron-structured calcium phosphates compared to those without submicron topography, which suggests these cells have a role in bone induction mechanism by materials with submicron topography. *

Another recent study published in January 2023 in Clinical Oral Implants Research with the support of InterLynk scientist Florence G. de Groot (Kuros) evaluated the efficacy of calcium phosphate with submicron surface topography as a bone graft substitute for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA). The researchers compared two calcium-phosphate-based materials with autologous bone graft as controls: BCPN, a calcium phosphate with submicron needle-shaped topography, and BCPG, a calcium phosphate with submicron grain-shaped topography. The study found that both materials were highly biocompatible, supported bony ingrowth with direct bone apposition against the material, and exhibited bone formation as early as 3 weeks post-implantation. However, BCPN promoted significantly more bone formation and was comparable to autologous bone grafts in preclinical and clinical studies. This suggests that BCPN may be a promising alternative to ABG for MSFA. *

Already back in February 2022, a group of Kuros researchers co-published in Materials about the efficacy of MagnetOs bone graft, a type of calcium phosphate that combines a submicron needle-shaped topography with a special binder as a bone graft material. They found that the material degraded slowly and did not affect the BCP granules' characteristic surface topography, allowing for the formation of new bone over time. Moreover, the material was safe and effective in promoting bone growth without causing any negative side effects. *

Taken together, these studies demonstrate the promising potential of MagnetOs bone graft and other calcium phosphate materials with submicron surface topography as valuable options for promoting bone healing. In InterLynk we build on this knowledge as we work towards the fabrication of highly tailored 3D-printed scaffolds with unprecedented biofunctionality, drawing on a series of different biomaterials, including calcium-phosphate-based bioceramics. Overall, these findings will contribute to the development of improved biomaterials and strategies for aiding the healing process of bones.


L.A. van Dijk, L. Utomo, H. Yuan, F. Barrère-de Groot, D. Gawlitta, A.J.W.P. Rosenberg, J.D. de Bruijn, Calcium phosphate with submicron topography influences primary human macrophage response, enhancing downstream angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro, Journal of Immunology and Regenerative Medicine, Volume 19, 2023,

van Dijk, L. A.Janssen, N. G.Nurmohamed, S. J.Muradin, M. S. M.Longoni, A.Bakker, R. Groot, F. Bruijn, J. D.Gawlitta, D., & Rosenberg, A. J. W. P. (2023). Osteoinductive calcium phosphate with submicron topography as bone graft substitute for maxillary sinus floor augmentation: A translational studyClinical Oral Implants Research34177– 195

Belluomo, R.; Arriola-Alvarez, I.; Kucko, N.W.; Walsh, W.R.; de Bruijn, J.D.; Oliver, R.A.; Wills, D.; Crowley, J.; Wang, T.; Barrère-de Groot, F. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Posterolateral Fusion Performance of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate with Submicron Needle-Shaped Surface Topography Combined with a Novel Polymer Binder. Materials 2022, 15, 1346.

*Results from in vivo laboratory testing may not be predictive of clinical experience in humans. For important safety and intended use information please visit